The United Nations posits that sustainable development entails achieving a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To realize sustainable development, there must be a harmonious coordination of three core elements: economic growth, social inclusion, and environmental protection.
In the year 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the “2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,” which outlined 17 sustainable development goals and 169 specific indicators across various domains such as economic growth, education, health, employment opportunities, climate change, and environmental conservation. These goals are applicable to all countries and people worldwide. Leaders of nations also pledged to commit to the implementation of each sustainable development goal over the following 15 years (2015 to 2030), with a focus on eradicating poverty, protecting the environment, and ensuring that everyone can share in peace, security, and prosperity.
The 17 sustainable development goals are primarily categorized into six major areas: poverty, health, education, safety, sustainable development, and the environment.
End poverty in all its forms everywhere
End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
Reduce inequality within and among countries
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development
Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development